State-of-the-art Imaging Biomarkers
for Alzheimer's Disease
QMENTA has amassed the most advanced and widely used imaging biomarkers on its platform to enable experts to measure the efficacy of treatments under trial or research in a single environment.
Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's is critically important for treatments. Seeing and quantifying the changes in white matter, connectivity, and volume quantification for different regions of the brain is beneficial for the detection of the disease and estimation of its progression.
Whole Brain Volume, Grey Matter Volume & Cortical Thickness
Whole brain volume is the most commonly used imaging endpoint in clinical trials in Alzheimer’s(16), additionally it has been shown in studies that volume/thickness changes or abnormal values for determined areas can be a good biomarker for the detection of the disease and estimation of its progression.(17,18,19) The QMENTA platform’s gray matter volumetry tools allow for quantification of region-specific gray matter volume for each patient timepoint using processing tools such as FreeSurfer, ANTs and SIENAX. The platform’s data management allows longitudinal assessment of gray matter atrophy.
Diffusion Measures on Main Fiber Bundles
Diffusion-weighted imaging quantification has been identified as a promising biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease, revealing white matter alteration and enabling neurobiologically meaningful prognosis and outcomes.(20,21) The QMENTA platform offers a suite of automated tools for analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging analysis including fascicle specific diffusion measurements.
Patterns of Whole Brain Structural Connectivity
Connectomics allows the study of structural brain connectivity, both at the level of individual connections between relevant areas and through graph-measures to characterize whole-brain connectivity. It can be used to research the possible impact of these diseases on brain connectivity. (22) The QMENTA platform provides fully automatic connectome analysis tools.
Hippocampal atrophy is the most important imaging-derived biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease, commonly used in both research and clinical trials.(14) The QMENTA platform offers tools for volumetric quantification of hippocampal subfields, including hi-resolution hippocampal image quantification.
Ventricular volume is a commonly used imaging endpoint in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s therapies.(16) The QMENTA platform’s volumetric tools provide ventricular volume quantification.
Basal Ganglia Volumetry
Aside from the whole brain and the hippocampus, regions of the basal ganglia are also found to exhibit atrophy in the progression of Alzheimer’s.(15) The QMENTA platform offers tools for volumetric quantification of basal ganglia structures.
14. Henneman, W. J. P., Sluimer, J. D., Barnes, J., Van Der Flier, W. M., Sluimer, I. C., Fox, N. C., ... & Barkhof, F. (2009). Hippocampal atrophy rates in Alzheimer disease added value over whole brain volume measures. Neurology, 72(11), 999-1007.
15. De Jong, L. W., Van der Hiele, K., Veer, I. M., Houwing, J. J., Westendorp, R. G. J., Bollen, E. L. E. M., ... & Van Der Grond, J. (2008). Strongly reduced volumes of putamen and thalamus in Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study. Brain, 131(12), 3277-3285.
16. Cash, David M., et al. "Imaging endpoints for clinical trials in Alzheimer’s disease." Alzheimer's research & therapy 6.9 (2014): 87.
17. Querbes, Olivier, et al. "Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using cortical thickness: impact of cognitive reserve." Brain 132.8 (2009): 2036-2047.
18. Racine, Annie M., et al. "The personalized Alzheimer's disease cortical thickness index predicts likely pathology and clinical progression in mild cognitive impairment." Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring 10 (2018): 301-310.
19. Dickerson, Bradford C., et al. "The cortical signature of Alzheimer's disease: regionally specific cortical thinning relates to symptom severity in very mild to mild AD dementia and is detectable in asymptomatic amyloid-positive individuals." Cerebral cortex 19.3 (2008): 497-510.
20. Douaud, Gwenaëlle, et al. "DTI measures in crossing-fibre areas: increased diffusion anisotropy reveals early white matter alteration in MCI and mild Alzheimer's disease." Neuroimage 55.3 (2011): 880-890.
21. Zhang, Y., et al. "Diffusion tensor imaging of cingulum fibers in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease." Neurology 68.1 (2007): 13-19.
22. Lo, Chun-Yi, et al. "Diffusion tensor tractography reveals abnormal topological organization in structural cortical networks in Alzheimer's disease." Journal of Neuroscience 30.50 (2010): 16876-16885.